I. Brief technical description and main technical performance indicators
Haematococcus pluvialis ）是一种单细胞绿藻，在一定条件下细胞增大，转变为厚壁孢子，其中积累大量的虾青素（Astaxanthin）。 Haematococcus pluvialis is a kind of single-celled green algae. Under certain conditions, the cells enlarge and transform into thick-walled spores, in which a large amount of astaxanthin (Astaxanthin) accumulates. Haematococcus pluvialis is considered to be the most capable of synthesizing and accumulating astaxanthin in nature. Astaxanthin is a super natural antioxidant with antioxidant capacity several times that of natural beta-carrots and vitamin E. It has a strong ability to remove free radicals and protect cells and tissues from lipid oxidation and peroxidation. The damage significantly improves the body's immunity and has anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. Large-scale cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis to produce natural astaxanthin is an internationally emerging microalgae biotechnology industry.
The production process for cultivating Haematococcus pluvialis in foreign countries adopts a "two-step method". The first step is to cultivate Haematococcus green cells in a closed system to accumulate biomass. The second step is to induce red in closed or open systems. Chlorella forms spores and accumulates astaxanthin. This project uses the patented "one-step method" of the Wuhan Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The entire production process, including the growth of green cells, the conversion of mobile cells to acinetospores, and the accumulation of astaxanthin in the spores, are all under open cultivation. Completed in the pool, the open pool system with less investment is used instead of the expensive closed system for production, which reduces investment and production costs, and creates favorable conditions for large-scale industrial production. The project has achieved innovative breakthroughs in the following areas:
． 1 . 3.0% ，大面积养殖达到 2% 以上。 The Haematococcus pluvialis species suitable for phytoalkali culture in Chenghai Lake, Yunnan were screened for the first time, and the astaxanthin content reached 3.0% of the dry weight , and the large-scale culture reached more than 2% .
． 2 ． 1 ）“一步法”生产模式：雨生红球藻绿色细胞的生长繁殖、生物量的积累、孢子的转化和天然虾青素的积累在同一个光生物反应器中完成；（ 2 ）“池扩池”藻种培养工艺：藻种扩大培养是在一系列藻种池中逐步扩大培养完成的， 25m 2 -200m 2 -750m 2 ；（ 3 ）开放式大池生产技术：利用 750 平米开放池规模化培养红球藻，产品中天然虾青素含量达到 2.23% 。 Established a unique large-scale cultivation technology system of Haematococcus pluvialis to produce natural astaxanthin: ( 1 ) "One-step" production mode: growth and reproduction of green cells of Haematococcus pluvialis, accumulation of biomass, and spore transformation The accumulation of astaxanthin and natural astaxanthin is completed in the same photobioreactor; ( 2 ) "Pond expansion" algae cultivation process: Algal species expansion culture is gradually expanded in a series of algae species ponds, 25m 2 -200m 2 -750m 2 ; ( 3 ) Open large pond production technology: 750 square meters of open pond is used to cultivate Haematococcus on a large scale, and the natural astaxanthin content in the product reaches 2.23% . The use of an open pool system with less investment instead of an expensive closed system for production reduces investment and production costs, improves production efficiency, and provides an advanced production technology system for large-scale industrial production.
． 3 ． An environmentally friendly production process has been established: the waste culture solution of Haematococcus is used to cultivate spirulina after treatment, and no wastewater is discharged during the production of Haematococcus, which is of great significance to the sustainable development of Haematococcus biotechnology industry.
． 4 . Astaxanthin ）的生物可利用性，为雨生红球藻孢子粉生产过程的质量控制和产品流通过程的质量监管提供可靠的技术方法。 A chemical method for determining the breaking rate of Haematococcus spores was established to accurately and quantitatively reflect the bioavailability of the active ingredient Astaxanthin of Haematococcus spore powder. Quality control and quality supervision of product distribution processes provide reliable technical methods.
． 5 . 6 篇， 其中 3 篇（英文）属于 SCI 刊源论文。 Published 6 related research papers , of which 3 (English) belong to SCI journal source papers. ZL200910063306.0 ）。 And was granted a patent for invention (patent number: ZL200910063306.0 ).
． 6 . The first application of new resources of Haematococcus pluvialis in China was approved and approved by the Ministry of Health.
． 7 . A 程海螺旋藻养殖厂建成了 50000 平方米红球藻养殖基地，生产规模达到 2.14 吨 / 月。 A 50,000- square-meter haematococcus breeding base was built in the Yunnan Green A Chenghai Spirulina Breeding Plant , with a production scale of 2.14 tons / month. It has also formulated enterprise standards for Haematococcus pluvialis powder, Haematococcus pluvialis powder for feed, Haematococcus pluvialis soft capsules.
Prospects and measures for promotion and application
Astaxanthin is the most important carotenoid used as an aquaculture feed additive. In 2005, the aquaculture industry accounted for one third of the global fisheries. Since the 1980s, global capture fisheries no longer grow, and the aquaculture industry must develop rapidly to meet the growing demand for aquatic products worldwide. FAO statistics show that in the past 50 years, the global aquaculture industry has developed at an average annual growth rate of 8.85%. By 2004, the total output reached 59.4 million tons (including aquatic plants) and the output value reached 70.3 billion US dollars. The global salmon farming industry requires 130 tons of astaxanthin each year, more than 90% of which is chemically synthesized by two major companies (Hoffman-La Roche and BASF) at a price of $ 2,500 / kg.
Currently, the global astaxanthin market is approximately $ 400 million per year. With the increasing attention to food safety issues, the use of synthetic pigments has become more and more restricted, and the demand for natural products has increased. The astaxanthin market has become increasingly "preferred" to natural astaxanthin, and natural astaxanthin has replaced chemical Synthetic products are imperative.
The outstanding antioxidant activity of natural astaxanthin has attracted much attention. Studies have shown that astaxanthin inhibits the formation of oxidative low-density lipoproteins in humans, and that astaxanthin has the function of eliminating lipid peroxidation. Preclinical research shows that astaxanthin has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may be developed as a drug for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and inflammation, which will open up a whole new market for natural astaxanthin-human pharmaceuticals. The price of astaxanthin is US $ 100,000 / kg. The industry believes that in the next few years, astaxanthin as an antioxidant is only expected to be $ 800 million per year in the North American market and will reach tens of billions of dollars worldwide.
The market positioning of chlorella products of Yunnan Green A Company is mainly health products. The chlorella soft capsules have been successfully developed. Trial sales were conducted in 2010 and the first half of 2011, with cumulative sales exceeding 20 million. The strategy of developing haematococcus market is to achieve high quality and high yield through technological innovation, and to win with quality. Green A company has 21 sales branches, has established stores in more than 140 large and medium-sized cities in China, and has a sales network all over the country. Overseas, Green A products are sold in the United States, Germany, Korea, Japan, Australia, and Southeast Asian countries and regions The green A company's sales network has provided an effective platform for domestic and international sales of Haematococcus products.