Effects of spirulina supplementation on exercise performance
Xiong Zhengying, Li Feng
(School of Physical Education and Institute of Sports Biology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi)
Abstract: Spirulina is a kind of seaweed in the cyanophyta phylum, commonly known as spirulina, with large finger-shaped spirulina (Sirulina platensis) and giant spirulina (Spirulina maxima). It is rich in protein, amino acids, polysaccharides, multiple vitamins and trace elements, and has various effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, lowering blood lipids, enhancing immunity, enhancing memory, and improving exercise capacity. This review evaluates the nutritional value of spirulina and its impact on related sports indicators, so as to understand the role of spirulina supplements in promoting sports performance, and provide a certain theoretical and scientific basis for the development of nutritional supplements for athletes.
The Influence of Algae Supplement on Sports Ability
XIONG Zheng-ying, LI Feng
(Shanxi Normal University, Xipan, 710062, China)
： The Spirulina ( SP) is a kind of algal of cyanophyta , SP is Spirulina Platensis and Spirulina Maxinca. Itcontains aboundant protein ,amino acid ,much candies ,many kinds of vitamin and trace element . It has antioxidant ,antiageing ,resisting tired ,lowing fat of blood , strengthens immunity and memory ,improves sports ability,etc. This article makes a survey about the influence of SP to the ability of sports and can offer certain scientific theory basis for the development of athlete nutritional pharmaceutical. Abstract ： The Spirulina (SP) is a kind of algal of cyanophyta, SP is Spirulina Platensis and Spirulina Maxinca. Itcontains aboundant protein, amino acid, much candies, many kinds of vitamin and trace element. It has antioxidant, antiageing, resisting tired, lowing fat of blood, strengthens immunity and memory, improves sports ability, etc. This article makes a survey about the influence of SP to the ability of sports and can offer certain scientific theory basis for the development of athlete nutritional pharmaceutical.
： spirulina；supplement；ability of sports Keywords : spirulina; supplement; ability of sports
Spirulina is rich in nutritional value and contains many nutrients required by the human body.Experts from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) believe that spirulina is an ideal food in the 21st century. "And" eighth five-year "promotion projects. The scientific supplementation of spirulina will have a certain promotion effect on the improvement of exercise capacity, delaying exercise fatigue and promoting fatigue recovery.
螺旋藻的营养价值 1 Nutritional value of spirulina
 。 Spirulina is by far the richest and most comprehensive natural food in the world  . It contains almost all the nutrients needed by the human body. It has been hailed as a "micro-nutrition bank" in modern science. Its protein content is as high as 60% to 70%, which can be said to be the highest among various foods. Animal tests show that the efficacy ratio of spirulina can reach 2.2 to 2.6, which is 74% to 78% of the standard protein; the net protein utilization rate is 53% to 61%, which is 85% to 92% of the standard casein, and its digestibility is also Up to 75%, biological value is 68%, its essential amino acid pattern is comprehensive and balanced, in line with the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) protein consulting organization to determine the model. Spirulina is also high in vitamins, especially the antioxidant carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C. In addition, spirulina also contains taurine and metabolic enzymes that are rare in common foods; spirulina's minerals and trace amounts It is rich in elements, and its selenium content is particularly high compared to general terrestrial plants.In addition, spirulina is a low-fat food with a total fat content of about 10% of protein, but its fatty composition is mainly unsaturated fatty acids, especially It is rich in essential fatty acids; Spirulina contains about 13% to 15% carbohydrates, and contains a variety of sugars required by the body, which can be quickly broken down during exercise to provide energy for the body.
螺旋藻的营养补充对运动能力的影响 Effect of 2 Spirulina Nutrition Supplements on Sports Ability
2.1 Effect of Spirulina on Endurance
 ,机体的耐力取决于能量代谢的调节和协调过程、酸碱平衡等因素,就能量供应物质而言,肌糖原的含量、脂肪酸的氧化速率对机体的耐力水平有着重要的影响。 Physical fitness is the body's ability to adapt to physical activities and sports  . The body's endurance depends on factors such as the regulation and coordination of energy metabolism, acid-base balance, and other factors. In terms of energy supply substances, muscle glycogen content, fatty acid oxidation Speed has an important effect on the body's endurance level. In addition, spirulina is rich in aspartic acid and has a direct anti-fatigue effect.
2. 1. 1 Effect of glycogen in spirulina on endurance
Muscle activity is mainly provided by the rapid decomposition of ATP in muscle cells to provide energy, while ATP supplementation is mainly produced by the anaerobic hydrolysis of glycogen and glucose to produce lactic acid and the oxidative decomposition of sugars, fatty acids and amino acids in the mitochondria under aerobic conditions Energy synthesis, the other part is synthesized by CP decomposition in the muscle. Because the body mainly relies on glycogen fermentation to obtain energy, when glycogen is consumed in large quantities, the body's ability to move will decrease. While consuming glycogen, blood glucose is taken from the blood, and blood glucose can be supplemented by liver glycogen breakdown to maintain blood glucose levels. Once muscle glycogen and liver glycogen are consumed in large quantities, the drop in blood glucose can lead to central nervous system energy Insufficient, which leads to the occurrence of general fatigue, which reduces exercise capacity. Some experiments have shown that , adding a certain amount of spirulina to the diet of mice can increase the muscle glycogen reserve, thereby providing the body with more energy, and has the effect of improving physical fitness and increasing endurance.
2. 1.2 Effect of Fat Composition on Endurance in Spirulina
When the body performs long-term endurance exercise, especially in the late stage of 60% maximum oxygen uptake exercise, it mainly depends on the oxidation function of fat. The fatty acid composition of spirulina is mainly unsaturated fatty acids, especially the high content of essential fatty acids. Some experiments have shown that taking spirulina can delay the occurrence of exercise-induced fatigue and make it difficult for hemoglobin to decrease after exercise.  ,海藻淀粉硫酸酯能降低饲用高脂大鼠血液凝固性,促进血液循环,从而使机体获得更多的氧气,保证运动时机体供氧的充足。 In the 1970s, spirulina was used by both Mexican and Cuban athletes, which proved to have a good effect on enhancing physical fitness, restoring physical strength, and increasing endurance; it has also been reported  that seaweed starch sulfate can reduce blood coagulation in high-fat rats fed. Sex, promote blood circulation, so that the body gets more oxygen, to ensure that the body provides sufficient oxygen during exercise.
2.2 Anti-fatigue effect of spirulina
The body's fatigue is affected by many factors, among which muscle glycogen depletion, lactic acid accumulation, and free radical damage are the important factors leading to sports fatigue.
2. 2. 1 Effect of spirulina on lactic acid
Lactic acid occupies an important position in the functional system.It is the end product of the glycolytic energy supply system and an important oxidative matrix of the aerobic metabolic functional system.It can also be converted into sugar through the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver. Many effects on the body's acid-base balance have become negative effects, leading to fatigue. The change of its content can explain the degree of glycolysis in the body under anaerobic conditions, and it is a commonly used biochemical index to evaluate body fatigue.  , 饲料添加0.5 %螺旋藻+ 0.1 %L- Asp +0.3 %L-Tyr 和单纯添加2.5 %螺旋藻都能明显降低血乳酸的生成量,增加有氧代谢能力。 Some people have studied the effects of spirulina on blood lactic acid in mice under high temperature  , and 0.5% spirulina + 0.1% L-Asp + 0.3% L-Tyr and 2.5% spirulina can significantly reduce the feed The amount of blood lactic acid produced increases aerobic metabolism. In addition, as a kind of alkaline food, spirulina has the effect of neutralizing the acidic system under fatigue state and the weak alkaline constitution to maintain human health, so as to achieve the purpose of anti-fatigue.
2.2.2 Effect of Spirulina on Glycogen Content
Glycogen is the main substance of the body's energy supply. Exhaustion of muscle glycogen will cause fatigue to a large extent and reduce exercise capacity. Spirulina contains 13% to 16% of carbohydrates, including a variety of carbohydrates required for body movement.These carbohydrates are easy to digest and absorb, and require only a small amount of insulin to participate, so the use of spirulina does not increase the burden of insulin. Glycogen can be quickly provided to the human body as an energy requirement, thereby having the effects of improving physical fitness and anti-fatigue. The experiments showed that after 31 days of consumption of spirulina in mice, the liver glycogen content in the experimental group increased by three times and the muscle glycogen increased by 18%, indicating that spirulina can improve the body's glycogen reserve and resist fatigue.
2.2.3 Effect of Spirulina on Free Radical Metabolism
Free radicals are those atoms, ions, or molecules whose electrons are not paired in the outermost electron orbit. There are a variety of free radicals, such as oxidative free radicals and hydroxyl free radicals. Under normal physiological conditions, free radicals in the body maintain a low concentration equilibrium. [5 ,6] ,自由基的异常增多引起肌细胞伤害,使骨骼肌受损,进而影响运动能力。 Exercise as a physiological stress, the free radicals produced by the body's skeletal muscles have been proved by many experiments [5,6] . The abnormal increase of free radicals causes muscle cell injury, skeletal muscle damage, and then affects athletic ability.  ,而研究表明  ,在研究螺旋藻对运动小鼠自由基代谢的影响发现,螺旋藻及其复方能明显提高运动小鼠红细胞SOD 活性和降低红细胞丙二醛(MDA) 的含量,提示螺旋藻可通过提高SOD 等抗氧化酶活性,清除氧自由基,减轻氧自由基及其引发的脂质过氧化物质对红细膜结构的损伤,从而达到保护细胞的目的。 The important antioxidant enzymes in the antioxidant system are SOD and GSH-Px. They block the free-radical chain reaction, which can prevent free radicals from damaging cells and subcellular organelles such as sterics  , and research shows that [8 ] In studying the effect of spirulina on free radical metabolism in exercise mice, it was found that spirulina and its compound can significantly increase the red cell SOD activity and reduce the red cell malondialdehyde (MDA) content in exercise mice, suggesting that spirulina can increase SOD by increasing Such as antioxidant enzyme activity, scavenge oxygen free radicals, reduce the damage of red membrane membrane structure caused by oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidants, and thus achieve the purpose of protecting cells.  ,服用螺旋藻31 d 后,实验小鼠游泳到衰竭的时间比对照组增加了2 h ,说明螺旋藻具有明显的抗疲劳作用。 In addition, some studies have shown that [ 31 ] after taking Spirulina for 31 days, the time taken by the mice to swim to failure increased by 2 hours compared with the control group, indicating that Spirulina has a significant anti-fatigue effect.
2. 2. 4 Effect of Spirulina on Blood Urea
Blood urea is an important indicator for evaluating the functional status of athletes. Changes in blood urea content can explain the catabolism of nitrogenous substances in the body, which is closely related to exercise load and load intensity. It is of great significance to understand the energy supply of protein and amino acid during exercise and the metabolic situation during recovery by measuring the urea production and recovery period of athletes during long-term exercise.  ,添加螺旋藻的实验组血尿素含量明显低于非添加组,说明一定量的螺旋藻能降低机体内含氮物质的分解,从而增加机体负荷耐受能力,具有良好的抗疲劳作用。 Luo Haiji et al. Proved that the blood urea content of spirulina in mice under high temperature conditions  , the blood urea content in the experimental group with spirulina was significantly lower than that in the non-added group, indicating that a certain amount of spirulina can reduce nitrogen in the body The decomposition of the material increases the body's load tolerance and has a good anti-fatigue effect.
螺旋藻对运动员的健康保护作用 3 Spirulina protects the health of athletes
3.1 The effects of spirulina on the body's immune function
Spirulina can improve the phagocytosis of macrophages, promote the transformation of lymphocytes, increase the number of lymphocytes, and enhance their activity; increase the weight of the thymus and spleen; spirulina can promote the synthesis of serum proteins and increase the content of serum hemolysin; spiral Algae polysaccharides can relieve the symptoms of thymus and spleen atrophy, T lymphocyte decrease, and serum protein hemolysin decrease caused by immunosuppressive agents. Phycocyanin is a light-harvesting pigment complex protein with a high content of about 20% of dry weight. [ 9 ] 。 Studies have shown that algal blue protein can increase the activity of lymphocytes, improve the body's immune function through the lymphatic system, and comprehensively enhance the body's disease prevention and disease resistance  .
 ,富硒藻兰蛋白在实验剂量范围内离体实验可提高淋巴细胞的转化率,在体实验可提高机体细胞免疫和体液免疫功能。 Some scholars have obtained the injection of mice by preparing selenium-enriched phycocyanin  . In vitro experiments with selenium-enriched phycocyanin can increase the lymphocyte conversion rate, and in vivo experiments can improve the body's cellular immunity and body fluids Immune Function.  。 In addition, seaweed polysaccharide sulfate is a natural heparin-like substance that can improve human immunity and has anti-tumor effects  . β-carotene is one of the effective free radical scavengers, and its content in spirulina is 200 ～ 400 mg / 100 g. In recent years, research has found that β-carotene has obvious anti-oxidation and improves immunity in the body. It promotes the enhancement of immune function by destroying singlet oxygen and its active oxygen form, which is mainly reflected in its ability to protect phagocytic cells from their oxidative damage, promote the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, and enhance the T cell's Function to promote the production of certain interleukins.
3.2 Antioxidant effect of spirulina
The cell membrane is a place for material exchange between the inside and the outside of the cell.The integrity of the cell membrane ensures the normal exchange of material.If the cell membrane is oxidized, it will cause the material exchange to be blocked. The flow of cell contents will cause hemolysis for red blood cells, and the algae Blue protein has an effect on improving the body's SOD enzyme activity, and it has a significant increase on the body's SOD and GSH-Px activities, especially it has a significant protective effect on liver GSP-Px. Increased SOD and GSH-Px activity will have a good protective effect on protecting cell membranes and preventing oxidation.
3.3 Prevention of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Iron deficiency anemia (IOA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies, and the essence of exercise anemia is iron deficiency anemia. For athletes, iron deficiency anemia will greatly affect the performance of the game.  。 Iron preparations and iron-fortified foods are commonly used to prevent iron deficiency anemia, but iron irritates the gastrointestinal tract and has a low absorption and utilization rate, while spirulina is a natural food with a high protein content and is rich in iron and vitamins [ 11] . Among them, iron is in the form of ferritin, which is most easily digested and absorbed.On the other hand, the chemical structure of spirulina pigment is a porphyrin ring, which is basically the same as the human hemoglobin form. It is not difficult to imagine that spirulina contains rich iron, The pigments and high-quality high-proteins of the porphyrin ring structure are the three major components of hemoglobin. After absorption, as long as the body's hematopoietic system functions normally, the sports body will be quickly supplemented with a large amount of new hemoglobin, thereby preventing iron deficiency anemia. occur.  。 It has been reported that the use of spirulina to prevent nutritional anemia has a significant effect  .  ,另外有实验表明  ,以纯种大鼠复制缺铁性贫血模型,随后用硫酸亚铁30 mg/ kg 和3 种不同剂量的螺旋藻掺入饲料中喂养观察,结果显示,3 种剂量螺旋藻喂养组血红蛋白、红细胞计数、细胞压积和血清蛋白均明显上升,其中饲料含螺旋藻组8 %以上的2 组疗效水平与硫酸亚铁治疗对照组相同,而体质量恢复较佳。 After Liang Jiangming et al. Used a low-iron diet to replicate the model of iron-deficiency anemia, a recovery test with spirulina showed that taking a certain amount of spirulina can speed up the recovery of iron-deficiency anemia, promote iron absorption, and increase plasma protein [ 24] , and other experiments have shown that  , a model of iron deficiency anemia was reproduced in purebred rats, and subsequently fed with ferrous sulfate 30 mg / kg and 3 different doses of spirulina in feed to observe, the results showed that, The hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, hematocrit, and serum proteins of the three doses of the spirulina feeding group all increased significantly. The efficacy level of the two groups containing more than 8% of the spirulina-fed group was the same as that of the ferrous sulfate treatment control group, and the body weight recovered. good. [ 14 ,15 ] 。 Spirulina can increase the concentration of red blood cells and hemoglobin in exercised rats and hemorrhagic mice, increase the activity of sodium-potassium ATPase in red blood cells, reduce the fragility of red blood cells, slow down the destruction of red blood cells, and effectively correct sports anemia [14,15] .
3.4 Protecting skeletal muscle and preventing damage
Exhaustive exercise can strengthen the three-dimensional lipid peroxide response of the skeletal muscle line, increase the generation of oxygen free radicals, reduce the activity of antioxidant enzyme SOD, and cause skeletal muscle function and structural damage.  通过观察螺旋藻对大鼠力竭运动后自由基代谢及肌肉损伤标志酶的影响发现,螺旋藻能使力竭运动后骨骼肌线立体自由基生成量减少,抗氧化酶活性增强,使血清中肌肉损伤标志酶水平降低,显示螺旋藻对运动性骨骼肌损伤有显著的保护作用,是较为理想的的运动营养补剂。 Huang Lixin  observed the effects of spirulina on free radical metabolism and muscle injury marker enzymes after exhaustive exercise in rats. It was found that spirulina can reduce the amount of three-dimensional free radicals generated by skeletal muscle lines after exhaustive exercise and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Enhancement reduces the level of muscle injury marker enzymes in serum, showing that Spirulina has a significant protective effect on sports skeletal muscle injury, and is an ideal sports nutrition supplement.
3.5 Effect on red blood cells and hemoglobin
The change of red blood cell morphology affects its oxygen-carrying function on the one hand, resulting in decreased exercise capacity, and on the other hand, it also affects its deformability, resulting in microcirculation damage. Hemoglobin is an important carrier for red blood cells to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.The change in its content will greatly affect the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. It is one of the important factors for sports fatigue, and the red blood cell morphological changes will also affect its flow. change
It is easy to stay and be damaged in the reticuloendothelial system. In severe cases, intravascular hemolysis occurs, which leads to the occurrence of sports fatigue. Therefore, it is of great significance to find an effective method to resist the red blood cell injury caused by high-intensity training.  等通过实验研究螺旋藻对小鼠红细胞形态的影响得出,在大强度训练导致机体红细胞形态异常的情况下,螺旋藻及其复方可明显降低大强度训练小鼠红细胞的畸形率,从而具有明显的保护红细胞的作用。 Zhu Meiju  et al. Studied experimentally the effect of spirulina on the morphology of red blood cells in mice, and found that under the condition that high-intensity training caused abnormal erythrocyte morphology, spirulina and its compound can significantly reduce the abnormal rate of red blood cells in high-intensity training mice. Therefore, it has a significant effect on protecting red blood cells.  ,给运动员口服螺旋藻胶囊后可提高血液中血红蛋白的含量,并且一定剂量的螺旋藻对大鼠心脏人工失血造成的血红蛋白下降有明显的保护作用。 In addition, experiments have shown that  , oral administration of spirulina capsules can increase the hemoglobin content in the blood, and a certain dose of spirulina has a significant protective effect on the reduction of hemoglobin caused by artificial blood loss in the heart of rats.
3. 6 reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease
[ 19] 。 Clinical trials have shown that spirulina has the effect of lowering serum cholesterol  . [20 ] 等通过研究螺旋藻对摄食高脂大鼠血脂水平的影响试验得出,螺旋藻能降低饲用高脂饲料大鼠血清中的甘油三脂( TG) 和血清胆固醇( TC) 的作用,表明螺旋藻对高脂饲料诱导血清中TC 和TG的升高具有抑制作用。 Li Xianghong  et al. Studied the effect of spirulina on blood lipid levels in high-fat rats, and found that spirulina can reduce the triglyceride (TG) and serum cholesterol (TC) in the serum of rats fed high-fat diets. The effect indicates that spirulina can inhibit the increase of TC and TG in serum induced by high-fat diet. In addition, spirulina is rich in linoleic acid and λ-linolenic acid.These substances have good effects on lowering blood lipids, lowering cholesterol, reducing blood viscosity, improving tissue blood circulation, maintaining vascular elasticity, preventing arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. efficacy. [ 21 ] 。 In addition, it has been reported that vitamin E can reduce serum bileinol value and prevent the occurrence and development of arteriosclerosis  . In addition, spirulina is rich in a variety of trace elements such as copper and selenium, which may also play a role in the lipid-lowering mechanism.
小结与展望 4 summary and outlook
[ 22 ] 。 The quantity and quality of protein is one of the main indicators for measuring the quality of food. The nutritional value and development and application value of spirulina are discussed. The most important thing is the protein of spirulina. A complete range of amino acids, especially rich in amino acids, is easily digested and absorbed by the body, promotes body growth, and effectively enhances physical fitness  . For athletes, how to improve endurance and eliminate fatigue is the key to good sports performance. [ 23 ] ,增加VB 1 、VB 2 和Vc 的供给可提高神经系统在运动过程中的灵敏性和耐久性,使运动成绩提高,不良状况得到改善;另外,螺旋藻所含丰富的无机盐、微量元素,能保持运动员水盐代谢的平衡,防止体液偏酸或延缓运动性疲劳的发生。 Studies have shown that  , increasing the supply of VB 1 , VB 2 and Vc can improve the sensitivity and durability of the nervous system during exercise, improve exercise performance, and improve adverse conditions; in addition, spirulina contains rich Inorganic salts and trace elements can maintain the balance of water and salt metabolism of athletes, prevent acidic body fluids or delay the occurrence of sports fatigue. The important factors leading to sports fatigue are glycogen depletion and lactic acid production. Spirulina, as a balanced and nutritious alkaline food, is rich in minerals that can alkalize acidic blood to neutralize excess lactic acid in the body to The purpose of anti-fatigue, in addition, the rich aspartic acid in spirulina has a direct anti-fatigue effect.  ,这在降脂机制中可能也有一定的作用 [ 24 ,25 ] 。 In addition, spirulina is rich in a variety of trace elements such as copper and selenium required by the human body, and the proportion is appropriate  , which may also play a role in the lipid-lowering mechanism [24,25] . However, whether the hypolipidemic effect of spirulina is related to the above components contained in it still needs to be further explored. [ 23 ] ,对骨骼肌线粒体有明显的保护作用,作为运动员补剂极具开发价值。 Spirulina has obvious anti-oxidant and corrective effects on free radical metabolism imbalance  , has obvious protective effects on skeletal muscle mitochondria, and has great development value as a supplement for athletes.
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