Talking Spirulina: Exquisite Original Food for Humans Published by China Agricultural Press
About the Author
Miao Jianren is a researcher in microalgae biotechnology. Born in November 1939, Liyang, Jiangsu, graduated from Yangzhou University. He has successively served as the director of the Institute of Science and Technology Information of Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the director of Jiangxi Province Institute of Science and Technology Information, and a researcher at Jiangxi Science and Technology Development Research Center. The earliest (1982) advocacy and development of new resources of microbial proteins in China-Blue-green Algaspirulina (Blue-greenAlgaspirulina) development and utilization of biotechnology research, the earliest (1983) introduction of Spirulina species from abroad (France, India and other countries) And cultivation technology, and the earliest (1984) establishment of China's spirulina pilot plant industrial cultivation system. Once undertook the national "Seventh Five-Year Plan" project-large-scale industrial cultivation technology of spirulina; mainly responsible for the collaborative research project of spirulina by the Ministry of Agriculture; hosted a key biotechnology project in Jiangxi Province-production and application technology of spirulina cultivation; Spirulina is an excellent algae strain with 8 strains, and has been extended to the whole country. In 1985, China's first large-scale industrialized production and cultivation system for spirulina was created; from 1995 to 2008, a large-scale industrial production of photosynthetic bioreactor system with internationally advanced microalgae was independently developed and applied for national invention patent protection . Published more than 60 scientific papers and won 17 provincial and ministerial scientific and technological achievement awards.
table of Contents
The key to human health and longevity-spirulina
Admonitions and Hope-Dialogue between Spirulina and Humans
NO.1 New Knowledge & Traceability-Questions from Youth and Futurists
NO.2 Essence & Moss-Question from Foodies and Media
NO.3 Nutrition & Function——Questions from nutrition experts and health instructors
NO.4 Health & Medicine——Questions from patients with health concerns and preventive medical experts
NO.5 Breeding & Ecology-Questions from Biotechnology Industry Developers and Environmental Experts
NO.6 Safety & Risk-Questions from Food Safety and Health Experts
NO.7 Prospects and Choices——Questions from PRED Strategic Scientists
Appendix I Contribution of Spirulina to the Aquaculture Industry
Appendix II 30 Years of Spirulina in China
Spirulina-the key to human health and longevity
Drugs can only treat the symptoms but not the symptoms P5
Since the 1980s, despite the huge amount of money spent on pharmaceutical research and drug factories worldwide and the development of a variety of new medicines to deal with various diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, known as century diseases, still It is incurable or incurable.
A survey report by the Chinese Medical Journal in May 2009 revealed that 1,200 patients with acute renal failure were admitted to 17 hospitals in Shanghai, of which 1/3 were due to drug abuse; among the drugs that cause renal toxicity , Antibiotics come first. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), many of the deaths worldwide are related to inappropriate medication.
So people realized that medicine is not a panacea. Medicine can cure the symptoms but not the root cause. In this urgent situation, many medical scientists and bioscientists, when looking for and developing new drug resources, have turned their attention to the nature of making green food and green medicinal diet. This is because, during thousands of years of human survival and civilization progress, nature has been helping humankind to overcome and cure a variety of difficult diseases with its natural food or medicated resources. Exploring and rediscovering the natural green world is also an inevitable move of scientific progress.
Spirulina's amazing original food
What makes modern people rejoice and rejoice is that a super green biological microalgae spirulina suddenly appeared in the in-depth exploration of scientists and opened the door to healthy and long life for human beings.
It came out of the depths of the western sky, the Sahara Desert in Africa, and immediately showed to human beings the colorful and balanced nutrients it contains: high-quality high-quality water-soluble proteins, various essential amino acids required by the human body, and many Unsaturated fatty acids (EPA, DHA) high-energy active polysaccharides, all kinds of full-value vitamins, and mineral elements required for human physiological activities ... In short, all nutrients required for human life activities, it is perfectly dedicated Come up! Scientists exclaim: This is simply a "super nutrition package" that nature has given to human beings!
The beauty of spirulina is that it is an inferior life form between the animal and plant kingdoms. However, the nutrients made by spirulina can meet almost all human physiological needs. So, biologists say that the genetic genome of spirulina is the key to making human nutrition!
Earth Man's Green Super Nutrition
So far, no edible biological resource on our planet is comparable to spirulina-it can provide both plant and animal nutrition for the human body. Spirulina is an ultra-concentrated "nutritional pack". 5 grams of fresh spirulina (dried algae) can meet the needs of an adult throughout the day for the main nutrition (equivalent to that obtained from various vegetables and fruits). Among all human edible foods, spirulina is the only natural nutrient that can comprehensively provide the basic physical energy and body tissues of the human body.
Spirulina differs from all edible animal and plant protein foods in the world in that it has a unique and complete amino acid composition and reasonable content, and is nutritionally known as full-price protein. Of all the animal and plant food resources currently known, such as fish, meat, milk, vegetables and fruits, although the composition and content of protein and amino acids are unique, they are not as complete as spirulina.
Water-soluble protein that the human body can easily digest and absorb
The nutritional value of spirulina lies in its high protein content, high digestibility coefficient and high absorption and utilization rate. So far, there is no edible organism in the world whose protein content and quality can exceed the level of spirulina.
The protein content of spirulina is as high as 68% to 72%, and the spirulina protein is water-soluble and has all the advantages of animal proteins. According to researchers' digestion experiments, the digestibility coefficient of spirulina reaches 83% to 85%
Another feature of spirulina is low fat, low calories, and no low density cholesterol (LDL), which is undoubtedly a major contribution to the health plan of modern people.
Heavenly coincidence 18 kinds of important amino acids in human body
Protein is spirulina made of amino acids. Spirulina contains all 18 amino acids the body needs, so nutrition experts call it a full-valent protein nutrient.
Of the 18 important amino acid compositions contained in spirulina, 10 are essential human amino acids recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Strangely, in the spirulina biomass of spirulina, its amino acid composition and content are compared with those recommended by FAO / WHO for human protein and amino acid intake, and they are basically close.
A treasure trove of important vitamins
Spirulina concentrates many important vitamins that are most needed for human physiological activities. It contains water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folic acid, as well as fat-soluble vitamin A and vitamin E.
Modern medicine confirms that vitamins are vital vital substances necessary to maintain and regulate the body's normal metabolism. It can also detoxify environmental toxins.
Vitamin B12 in spirulina is an important physiological function of life that is involved in the production of bone marrow red blood cells, prevents pernicious anemia, and prevents damage to the brain nerves.
Spirulina is by far the richest natural vitamin B12 in all plant resources in the world. In kilograms of spirulina dry algae, the average content reaches 5 mg, and after spirulina's vitamin B12 is absorbed by the body, its effective rate is as high as 20%, which is much superior to vitamin B12 from all other resources.
Five health factors in spirulina
Huge physical nutrition library-animal starch polysaccharides
Spirulina is mainly stored in the liver and muscle tissue of the human body after ingestion. When the human body needs metabolism, they can directly supply glycogen to the muscle tissue to generate energy, so that the human body can obtain explosive power and endurance. The advantage of this animal starch polysaccharide is that it does not increase the burden on the pancreas and does not produce hypoglycemia, which is of great significance for athletes, actors and other people with large physical energy consumption.
Human body's powerful health factors-polyunsaturated fatty acids
The lipids in the spirulina algae-rich natural unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are almost all important unsaturated fatty acids, and their cholesterol content is very low (<196 mg / kg). Spirulina is the only organism found in the world that is rich in gamma-linolenic acid among autotrophs. Among the conventional algae species produced by spirulina, its highest content even accounts for 40% of the total fatty acids.
Antioxidant beta that enhances the body's immune defense function-carotene
The carotenoids of spirulina have a fat-soluble property that is insoluble in water and soluble in oil, and can play a relatively stable role in human tissues. Every 20 grams of spirulina dry algae contains about 30 milligrams of beta-carotene, while the equivalent amount of beef liver contains only 1/4 of it and pig liver contains only 16 milligrams. Therefore, the average adult only needs to consume 2.5 grams of spirulina daily, which can fully meet the needs of human nutrition and metabolism for β-carotene.
Human's green blood-spirulina chlorophyll a
Spirulina's natural A-type chlorophyll can be called the natural human hemoglobin resource. Its content accounts for 1.1% of the total algae body, which is 2 to 3 times the chlorophyll content of most terrestrial plants and 10 times that of ordinary vegetables. .
Spirulina chlorophyll a together with its high-quality protein can be used as a direct supplementary raw material for human heme; moreover, because spirulina's cell wall and cell membrane are made of polysaccharides, people can consume chlorophyll a immediately after consuming spirulina Transformed into the human hemoglobin, so spirulina chlorophyll a can be called "human blood".
Human body's "patriotic missile"-SOD
SOD is an important enzyme that protects the body from superoxide radical molecules. Among the active biomass of spirulina, SOD is particularly abundant, and in 10 grams of fresh spirulina (dry biomass), it contains 10 000 to 37 500 IU (international units). According to the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences' measurement of more than 10 domestic algae powder samples in 2011, the average SOD reached 1 930 IU / g (dry algae).
SO D is the nemesis of peroxide radicals in the human body. Since the advent of spirulina, many people who have been taking it for a long time (usually taking 4 to 6 grams per day) have found that their appearance has become younger and their heart strength is stronger. It doesn't matter.
Spirulina's properties better than general green food
Slightly alkaline foods with more potassium and less sodium are more healthy
Spirulina cultured with a conventional medium formula is a high-quality weakly alkaline food. The potassium element in the algae cells is 37 times higher than the sodium element. In the cell biomass of spirulina, the potassium content per kilogram is as high as 15400 mg, and the corresponding sodium content is 412 mg.
Consuming spirulina, which is rich in potassium, daily, can prevent heart disease and reduce the risk of stroke. Medical experts say this is because higher sodium in foods raises blood pressure, while potassium has a lowering effect. Potassium is related to blood pressure, mainly potassium can soothe blood vessels and help to exclude sodium in the blood, thereby lowering blood pressure.
The important physiological role of magnesium
Magnesium ions are also essential for maintaining the normal function of human cells. Lack of magnesium ions can easily lead to the occurrence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The University of Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom released a report in March 2012 that magnesium supplements have the exact effect of lowering blood pressure. Magnesium supplementation can help reduce the risk of concurrent diseases in patients with hypertension. Researcher Linxi Cass of the school said that if magnesium supplementation is above 370 mg per day, systolic blood pressure can be reduced by 3 to 4 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure can be reduced by 2 to 3 mm Hg. And as the dose of magnesium supplements increases, the effect of lowering blood pressure will become more pronounced.
Spirulina has higher levels of magnesium than normal foods. The Spirulina cultured under conventional production conditions generally has a magnesium content of 1 915 mg / kg. Using spirulina as a supplementary food for magnesium ions has a good effect on maintaining and strengthening the function of brain learning and memory, preventing and controlling cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Calcium iron zinc supplement to promote intellectual development
Iron deficiency anemia is a world disease, most of which are women and children. Iron is decisive for the production of human cells (red blood cells). Spirulina is rich in organic iron (580 mg / kg). Organic complexing iron in spirulina products is combined with phycocyanin. When ingested and digested by the human body, its effective absorption rate is 2 times higher than that obtained by vegetables and meat. By taking spirulina iron supplement, not only can promote the production of blood cells, but also effectively prevent the formation of blood clots
In addition to iron, spirulina also contains active calcium that strengthens bones and bones. Calcium, iron and zinc are most effectively used by children's bodies. Calcium can cooperate with magnesium to increase the conductivity of muscles and nerves, and can cooperate with zinc to improve the intellectual development of adolescents. If the nutritional levels of calcium, iron, and zinc in a child's body are lower than the physiological requirements for development, it will not only affect their physique and health, but also affect the quality of life in the middle and old age in the future.
Rich in iodine and selenium can improve quality of life
Iodine deficiency is also an important reason that directly affects the quality of our population. In recent years, scientific researchers have confirmed through experiments that organic iodine complexed by spirulina is more easily absorbed by the human body after consumption. After being absorbed by the body, this organic complexed iodine is first stored in thyroid hormones, of which T4 accounts for 52% and T3 accounts for 18%. Clinical medical tests have proven that consumption of this organic iodine has a significant effect on improving the growth and development of adolescents and improving the level of intelligence. Visible iodine and selenium can improve the quality of life.
During the growth and culture of spirulina cells, after selenium and zinc enrichment treatment, the selenium and zinc content can be increased dozens of times. This selenium-rich spirulina has physiological significance and good clinical medical significance for reducing serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, improving high-density lipoprotein, and preventing Keshan disease.
Ten health functions of spirulina
Enhance immunity P81
Spirulina is a very precious immune-enhancing and enhancing agent that nature has given to human beings. Spirulina can repair and promote the body's immune system with its abundant immune-active substances.
Further mechanistic studies have shown that in addition to spirulina, which is rich in nutritional ingredients protein / vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin E, and trace elements iron and zinc, which have immune-enhancing functions, those algae polysaccharides and algae that have direct biological activity Blue protein, β-carotene, etc. play an important role in coordination, so that the body's immune defense system is always maintained in a stable and good operating state.
During the atypical pneumonia epidemic in China in 2003, spirulina was widely used in disease prevention and control as a preventive health food. Due to its good effect, spirulina appeared in short supply in the market.
Auxiliary blood lipid P87
Spirulina itself is not only a low-cholesterol super nutrition, but also the most ideal cholesterol-lowering food. Scientific research proves that spirulina is extremely rich in unsaturated fatty acids-gamma-linolenic acid. It can not only promote the excretion of cholesterol from the body, but also make the excess cholesterol difficult to be absorbed. According to research, every time the serum cholesterol level is reduced by 1%, The incidence of coronary heart disease can be reduced by 2%.
Tokyo Medical University of Japan has selected a group of (30 people, male) patients with typical high serum cholesterol (usually patients with moderate hypertension and hyperlipidemia). They were asked to volunteer to take the spirulina trial. After 4 weeks of testing, their serum cholesterol was generally reduced by 4.5% (from 244 mg / dl to 233 mg / dl), and all serum cholesterol returned to normal after 8 weeks.
Spirulina has been made into a variety of high energy anti-fatigue foods in many countries in the world. In order to verify the anti-fatigue effect of spirulina, many domestic scientific research institutions have conducted many tests in accordance with the functional food standards established by the original Ministry of Health, and the results have proved that spirulina is the most safe and powerful high-energy nutrient.
After consuming spirulina, the amount of lactic acid produced in the body increases, liver glycogen reserves increase, lipase activity is significantly improved, and the ability to break down fat is increased, which provides more energy for material conversion for fatigue resistance. The more energy the body obtains through anaerobic metabolism, the stronger the anti-fatigue ability.
Since Chinese swimmers participated in the 26th Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996, spirulina has been added to athletes 'recipes, which has contributed to the athletes' excellent results.
Spirulina is also very suitable for mental workers or people who work in hypoxia for a long time. That's why spirulina is resistant to hypoxia. In modern society, people's rhythms of work and life are getting faster and faster, and the brain is overloaded for a long time. Over time, it will lead to insufficient oxygen supply to the brain. At this time, people will feel depressed, confused, and lose efficiency. Similarly, Hypoxia is more likely to occur for those who are physically strenuous and ascend to a load.
In this case, taking spirulina is the most effective way to overcome hypoxia and eliminate fatigue. In recent years, many people in this field have experienced and confirmed this effect. This is because spirulina can promote the enhancement of hemoglobin's oxygen-carrying ability. Spirulina provides and enhances the activities of various enzymes in the human body and improves the body's use of oxygen.
Auxiliary hypoglycemic P83
Well-known microalgae experts conducted a 3-month clinical trial to prove that spirulina is absolutely reliable for reducing blood sugar. Taking spirulina can basically replace insulin dependence.
Spirulina's high-quality water-soluble proteins and SOD and β-carotene in the alga body. These antioxidants can effectively block oxygen free radicals, prevent the formation of lipid peroxides and deposition in blood vessels. Spirulina helps control diabetes Complications.
The chlorophyll a content of spirulina reaches 1.33%, which is 10 times that of ordinary vegetables, and the magnesium ion of synergistic vitamin B6 is its main core element; vitamin B1, vitamin B2, pantothenic acid and zinc of spirulina help to promote natural insulin The role of spirulina is also high, which can neutralize pyruvate and prevent pyruvate poisoning. This brings the gospel to patients with insufficient insulin leading to diabetes.
Control of hypertension P86
The spirulina has a serine content of 3.23% and a methionine 1.95%, a total of 5.18%, and the algae also have more vitamin B6 content. There are 80 micrograms in every 10 grams. Therefore, consumption of spirulina can help the body synthesize more choline and help lower blood pressure, while other high blood pressure symptoms will be reduced.
Vitamin B6 must have the help of magnesium ions for the enzyme to form the active state of B6-PO4 in the body. The high content of chlorophyll a in spirulina is exactly the source of magnesium ions.
In addition, the content of potassium in spirulina is 1.79%, which is more than 10 times that of ordinary vegetables. Therefore, adherence to spirulina is the most beneficial for potassium supplementation for these patients. Clinical experts use spirulina as a dietary test. Usually two weeks after consumption, patients can reduce their blood pressure by 20-30 mmHg.
Repair of corroded gastric mucosa P91
Spirulina contains chlorophyll a, a special factor that inhibits and repairs gastric ulcer tissues. It has anti-inflammatory, astringent, and promoting the regeneration of mucosal cells and gastric wall tissues for gastritis and gastric ulcers. Some well-known gastric medicines overseas have long used chlorophyll as a formula for the treatment of gastritis, gastric ulcers and bronchitis.
Spirulina is rich in potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and other basic elements, making it the best alkaline food. After consuming spirulina, spirulina can be quickly broken down into fine pullers, which are closely attached to the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum to form a protective film, thereby promoting the regeneration of the gastric mucosa, repairing the damaged gastrointestinal mucosa, The surface of the stomach is smooth and elastic, and the functional vitality of the stomach is restored. A large number of clinical trials at home and abroad have shown that the use of spirulina has a good protective effect on gastric diseases.
Improve nutritional anemia P92
Spirulina can significantly increase iron content in iron-deficiency anemia tissues. Iron is an important raw material for the synthesis of hemoglobin. The body's absorption and utilization of spirulina iron is similar to the standard ferrous sulfate used in clinical applications.
Spirulina's vitamin B12 is an important coenzyme and catalyst in hemoglobin synthesis.
The vitamin E contained in spirulina can protect the unsaturated fatty acids in the outer layer of red blood cells from being destroyed by peroxides. Folic acid and vitamin B6 are also important coenzymes composed of hemoglobin.
Spirulina is rich in chlorophyll a. In addition to directly providing raw materials for hemoglobin synthesis, it also has the function of promoting blood production.
The polysaccharide substance in spirulina can enhance the proliferation ability of bone marrow cells, promote bone marrow hematopoietic function, and increase the ratio of polychromatic red blood cells to positive red blood cells in the bone marrow. Therefore, spirulina can promote hemoglobin synthesis and strengthen the bone marrow's hematopoietic function from various aspects, and is suitable for patients with various anemias.
Helps to lose weight P93
Spirulina is the best helper for weight loss. Spirulina's high protein, low fat and low sugar can help control the endocrine disorders of the human body, enabling people to achieve and maintain a healthy body shape. Weight loss with spirulina can effectively inhibit the activity of fat synthase in the body without affecting other physiological functions. Spirulina's rich protein, minerals and vitamins can keep people full during weight loss without feeling unwell, debilitated and hungry. They do not need to take excessive dieting measures, and the weight loss effect is consolidated and it is unlikely to rebound.
Spirulina is simple to eat. Beauty can consume 6 ~ 8 grams per day (based on pure and dried algae powder), which can meet the basic nutritional needs of the human body, and can help obese people to achieve weight loss smoothly and safely.
Protects the liver P95
People with liver disease have a loss of liver function and need to be supplemented with high-quality protein. Spirulina is a naturally compatible super health food. It is rich in water-soluble fast-acting proteins, vitamins, and minerals, which is very beneficial for the care of patients with liver disease and the repair of liver tissue.
Spirulina's rich polysaccharides and β-carotene can prevent and treat hepatitis. It can not only provide the body with the nutrition required by the liver, but also strengthen the body's immune function, kill the hepatitis virus, and has excellent auxiliary effects.
In addition, the potassium element contained in spirulina can help to convert glucose into liver glycogen and store it. When the body needs it, it can be released, which can prevent hypoglycemia and fatigue.
Health significance of spirulina to different populations
Children's Green Promoter P65
Spirulina can effectively promote the healthy growth of young people with its balanced dietary nutrition of protein, amino acid and vitamin.
Spirulina algae cells absorb, enrich, and complex biologically active iron, zinc, calcium, and trace elements iodine and selenium during the growth of standard media. This has significant effects on the intellectual development and brain development of young students. effect. In addition, spirulina contains certain essential amino acids that can form polycondensates (polypeptides). And peptides are the most important functional substances in the brain. Therefore, spirulina has an important functional role in improving brain thinking.
An interesting phenomenon of spirulina is that it can "press the hunger" and is the best meal between classes. As long as young students take about 3 grams of nutrient block prepared with spirulina at one time, they can quickly get physical energy supplements, and hunger in the morning can be relieved.
Young Women's Huchun Dan P68
Spirulina is used for weight loss and can effectively inhibit the activity of fat synthase in the body without affecting other physiological functions. There is no need to take dieting measures, and the weight loss effect is consolidated without causing a rebound.
Because spirulina contains more alkaline ions such as potassium, calcium, and sodium, it can neutralize the skin's acidic substances and promote metabolism. The hydrolysate of spirulina and its enzyme has good skin permeability, and has a good effect on the microvascular circulation of the skin and the prevention of keratosis. It is beneficial for the prevention and treatment of acne, dark spots and freckles, reducing the discomfort caused by skin allergies, making the skin neutral, silky, and elastic, so as to achieve the effect of protecting the skin.
Spirulina can supplement rich and high-quality water-soluble proteins, activated carbon, activated calcium, etc., which can prevent anemia and malnutrition in pregnant women. It is of great significance to the normal and healthy growth of the fetus. Therefore, spirulina may be the king of a generation of maternal and child health food.
Middle-aged and elderly life-saving treasure P71
Spirulina is different from other anti-aging nutrients. It is rich in amino acids, vitamins, minerals, γ-linolenic acid, polysaccharides, phycocyanin and SOD and other important active nutrients to help middle-aged and elderly people. People comprehensively cope with and relieve the various symptoms of fatigue and weakness, so that they regain their vitality and vitality. Spirulina has the effect of rejuvenating children because it can regulate the secretion of pituitary gland, adrenaline and sex hormones. Although spirulina can not reverse the degenerative changes of the elderly, it can significantly delay and curb the process of human aging and delay the arrival of the elderly.
Preventive medicine doctor's years of clinical plus experience prove that: Spirulina can increase appetite in middle-aged and elderly people, smooth stools and deep sleep; can make senile plaques disappear, and even have low sexual function, prostate hypertrophy, asthma, shortness of breath, etc. , Also has a significant improvement.
Power source for athletes and special physical workers P74
Spirulina can quickly and effectively provide endogenous glycogen and eliminate lactic acid that causes muscle tissue fatigue. Simultaneously. The thermal energy of spirulina is characterized by the release of energy to muscle cells in the form of animal starch liver glycogen without lowering blood sugar levels. Significance.