"Red A haematococcus natural astaxanthin has unique functions"
Zhang Chengwu Chief Scientist of National "863" Project, Second Class Professor of Jinan University
Red A haematococcus is a single-cell green algae with high natural astaxanthin content currently recognized, and it is also the species with the highest accumulation among all known astaxanthin-synthetic organisms. 4%. More than 65 clinical studies and reports have been performed in more than 300 peer-reviewed publications, demonstrating the good application of Haematococcus A in promoting human health and nutritional status.
It must be noted that astaxanthin is different from synthetic astaxanthin and natural astaxanthin. The content of synthetic astaxanthin is mainly cis-structure and cannot be converted into the natural trans-configuration in the human body. Synthetic astaxanthin has lower bioabsorption effect, coloring ability, and biological titer than natural astaxanthin at the same concentration, which poses a safety risk. The FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) has banned chemically synthesized astaxanthin from entering the health food market. Therefore, there is no substitute for the nutritional application, biological activity, and health care of the natural astaxanthin of Haematococcus pluvialis.
The nutritional application of red A Haematococcus natural astaxanthin is reflected in its high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Its biological activities are reflected in anti-cancer activity, anti-obesity activity, anti-glyceride and cholesterol activity, cardioprotective activity, immunomodulatory activity, anti-diabetic activity, liver protective activity, neuroprotective activity, bone-care activity, ophthalmic diseases, The activity on the reproductive system, the activity in neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury, the improvement of athletic performance, and the benefits to the skin all have significant effects and promising results.
Red A haematococcus natural astaxanthin has a unique "barrier penetration" for human health. We have heard many antioxidants in our lives: enzymes, vitamins, anthocyanins, coenzyme Q10, etc. These are either water-soluble or fat-soluble. This property makes it difficult for them to penetrate the barrier of the human body, stay on the cell surface, and affect the cells. The core protection of tissues, tissues and systems is limited, and the antioxidant effect is poor. Many experiments have confirmed that the natural astaxanthin of Haematococcus pluvialis A is a strong antioxidant in nature, which is closely related to its perfect water-oil dual-soluble molecular structure and strong penetrating power.
Red A haematococcus natural astaxanthin has a unique function that other antioxidants do not have: natural astaxanthin can unimpededly cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the brain and central nervous system; cross the blood-eye barrier and enter the eyes; into joints, In the tendon, it relieves the pain of athletes and tennis players; it enters the skin to prevent UV damage and repairs signs of aging. Not only that, astaxanthin has a strong repair and protection effect on other organs such as the heart, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and digestive system. Astaxanthin reaches all parts of the body and can exert anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and other effects everywhere. This huge characteristic is not found in other antioxidants. Red A haematococcus natural astaxanthin is safe and has no side effects when consumed with food. ▲
"New directions for prevention and treatment of various diseases"
国际食品科学院院士、国际欧亚科学院院士、北京大学终身讲席教授 Chen Feng , Academician of the International Academy of Food Sciences, Academician of the International Eurasian Academy of Sciences, Lifetime Professor of Peking University
Advanced glycation end products (AGES) are a class of compounds with structural diversity and high heterogeneity. They are composed of active hydroxyl groups of reducing sugars (glucose, fructose, etc.) and amino acids, proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids and other organisms. The free amino group of a macromolecule is a product formed by condensation, rearrangement, cleavage, and modification after oxidation. In addition to endogenous ages, another important source of human ages, namely food-borne ages, is gradually found in food matrices, including baked goods, milk, coffee, etc. Studies have found that about one-tenth of food-borne AGES can enter the body's blood circulation. In normal organisms, the formation of AGES slowly and uniformly from early embryos and accumulates over time is an irreversible process. Their excessive accumulation in the body is considered to be a cause of many diseases, such as diabetes and complications, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, aging, and the like. Finding and investigating inhibitors of AGES has been used as a potential preventive measure to inhibit related diseases caused by AGES.
To date, inhibitors used to prevent glycosylation to block the formation of AGES have been primarily synthetic compounds and natural products. Although some synthetic compounds can inhibit or interrupt the production of AGES, they also have a higher risk of triggering side reactions. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products are relatively safe for the human body. Studies in recent years have shown that some plant and algae extracts and their corresponding phenolic and pigment compounds show effective inhibitors of AGES, which is related to the strong antioxidant properties of the compounds themselves. From the perspective of safety and efficacy, natural astaxanthin of Haematococcus sp. From natural sources has shown great research and application potential as a health ingredient and even as a preventive drug for the treatment of related diseases caused by AGES.
Red A haematococcus is a green algae widely used in natural astaxanthin production. The content of natural astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis can generally reach 2% to 4% of dry weight, and can reach up to 7% under induced conditions. In addition to natural astaxanthin, there are other small amounts of carotenoids such as violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene, and lipids in Haematococcus pluvialis. . This also makes it have a variety of physiological regulation functions such as anti-oxidation, anti-glycosylation, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, etc. It is an important natural source of food and functional ingredients.
Microalgae represented by spirulina, red A haematococcus, and chlorella have two significant advantages of biodiversity and rich tunability of metabolites, especially the ability to synthesize compounds with unique characteristics. A large number of research results show that microalgae and its bioactive metabolites have played a beneficial role in many pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, hypercholesterolemia, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and virality. Infection, etc. ▲
"Chlorella leads the mainstream market for the health industry in the 21st century"
中科院水生所微藻生物技术与生物能源研发中心主任 Hu Qiang Director, R & D Center for Microalgae Biotechnology and Bioenergy, Chinese Academy of Sciences
In the second half of the 20th century, antibiotics saved countless patients with infectious diseases. This century, antioxidants will bring a new revolution to human health history-it can not only prevent and treat various chronic diseases caused by aging, such as cataracts, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, malignant tumors, diabetes, Alzheimer's, etc., is even more striking-it can delay the human aging process and extend the expected life cycle of humans.
Haematococcus pluvialis is a single-celled green algae that lives in fresh water. This algae can accumulate large amounts of astaxanthin and become red. Therefore, it is called Haematococcus because it is a rainy species in green algae, also called rain Haematococcus. Astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis is a kind of carotenoid, and it is also a higher-level product of carotenoid synthesis discovered so far. It has strong antioxidant properties in nature, so it is known as the 21st century antioxidant Revolutionary product.
Nonetheless, research papers on Haematococcus pluvialis were only published sporadically from 1960 to 1990, with an average of less than 20 papers per year; and since the mid-1990s, the number of related papers has increased rapidly and has reached an average of hundreds per year. Haematococcus pluvialis has made great progress in research, application and promotion. The industrialization of Haematococcus pluvialis from individual analysis, physiological research to large-scale cultivation, from biological raw materials, extraction of algae oil, algae powder, and algae microparticles to basic products, and gradually developed to cover cosmetics, skin care products, nutrition and health products, etc. A range of end products. In the field of antioxidant, natural astaxanthin extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis has absolute advantages.
At present, there are generally three biological sources of natural astaxanthin: waste in the aquatic product processing industry, red yeast, and Haematococcus pluvialis. Among them, the astaxanthin content of shrimp, crab and other aquatic product waste is not only low, but also has high extraction cost, and the average content of astaxanthin in natural red-haired yeast is only 0.4%. In contrast, the content of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis is 1.5% to 4%. More importantly, the astaxanthin contained in Haematococcus pluvialis is a 100% L-structure, which has strong biological activity, which is better than astaxanthin extracted by Phaffia rhodozyma. Therefore, Haematococcus pluvialis is recognized as a better biological source for the production of natural astaxanthin in nature.
As a leading antioxidant product, Haematococcus pluvialis has been found to have more than 100 physiological and biological functions, such as anti-aging, protecting skin health, preventing cardiovascular disease, inhibiting and preventing diabetes, protecting the eyes and central nervous system, Enhance immunity, relieve exercise fatigue, enhance body energy metabolism, and suppress tumors.
It is believed that with the deeper research and understanding of the functions of Haematococcus pluvialis, with the wider application, humans will more and more enjoy the health benefits brought by Haematococcus A. ▲
"Scale production and improvement of biological extracts remain challenges"
欧洲藻类生物量协会eaba负责人 Vítor Verdelho Vieira Head of European Algae Biomass Association
Microalgae, as a type of single-cell photosynthetic organism, has the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high content of biologically active components and energy substances, etc., in the large health industry, carbon emission reduction, new energy and rich N / P wastewater resources Application prospects in areas such as chemical utilization are broad. Haematococcus pluvialis is an industrial algae widely used as food. Haematococcus natural astaxanthin has obtained 17 functional certifications from the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) (maintaining joint health, maintaining normal immunity, Maintaining tendon health, maintaining wrist health, maintaining normal function of joints after intense exercise, maintaining skin tissue health under sun exposure, maintaining skin health, protecting skin under sun exposure, protecting skin function from ultraviolet radiation, and maintaining a healthy body The state of oxidative balance, maintaining an elevated level of mental vitality, promoting rapid recovery after physical exercise, maintaining normal levels of C-reactive protein in the body, maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system, maintaining eye health, and crossing the blood-brain barrier).
Health care companies around the world have also launched more than 200 astaxanthin soft, hard capsule, oral liquid health foods. Especially in Japan, a "land of longevity", it is very popular. In the past 3 years, astaxanthin has become one of the health foods with high sales in Japan. The powerful effects of astaxanthin have been recognized with certainty and universality, and at the same time, human beings have made breakthroughs one after another in the research results of astaxanthin. And how to efficiently cultivate Haematococcus, make it applied on a large scale, and maximize the extraction of astaxanthin from its biological extracts has become the goal of researchers.
The original technology of large-scale cultivation of Haematococcus in foreign countries is the "two-step method", that is, the green cells are first cultured in a closed culture system, and after reaching a certain biomass, the green cells are put into an open culture system to transform spores. Accumulate astaxanthin. In the large-scale cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis, Yunnan Green A uses the patented technology of the Wuhan Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences "a method for cultivating Haematococcus pluvialis to produce astaxanthin". The whole process of haematococcus culture includes algae green cells The growth and reproduction, biomass accumulation, spore transformation and natural astaxanthin accumulation are completed in the same photobioreactor—open pond. Compared with foreign “two-step” technology, it simplifies the cultivation process and strengthens quality control. .
Green A's unique extraction process, CO2 supercritical extraction technology, has an extraction rate of more than 80%. This technology is in a leading position in China and has reached the international advanced level. The invention patent "A method for preparing Haematococcus pluvialis extract" (ZL201010548303.9) and "A preparation of Haematococcus pluvialis extract, its preparation method and use" (ZL201010548322.1) have been authorized. This technology has the following advantages: higher content, 5 times higher antioxidant efficacy; higher purity, zero residue; higher biological activity; more stable active ingredients. This technology currently belongs to the international leading level. ▲
"High-quality Haematococcus natural astaxanthin products start with algae species"
澳大利亚珀斯默多克大学海洋植物学教授兼藻类研发中心主任 Michael A. Borowitzka Professor of Marine Botany and Director of Algae R & D Centre, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia
Haematococcus pluvialis is a type of single-celled green algae living in fresh water. The algae can accumulate a high economic value of astaxanthin and its esters in its spores. With the deepening of research, the function of astaxanthin has attracted more and more people's interest. On the one hand, it is widely used as a feed additive because of its excellent coloring effect and its growth promotion effect on aquatic products and poultry. On the other hand, as a superior natural antioxidant, its antioxidant properties are better than β-carotene and vitamin E, and it has been widely used in the production of food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Astaxanthin has broad application prospects, and how to obtain a large amount of astaxanthin has become one of the hotspots in international research. According to current literature reports, the sources of astaxanthin are mainly chemical synthesis, extraction from crustaceans, production by fungi, and production by microalgae. Studies have shown that Haematococcus pluvialis has the highest astaxanthin content in nature.
However, the large-scale cultivation of Haematococcus produces astaxanthin with the following technical problems: 1. It is susceptible to contamination by other microalgae, amoeba protozoa; 2. Haematococcus generally adapts to low temperatures, and generally inhibits its growth above 28 ° C; 3. Slower growth; 4. Astaxanthin content is still low. Therefore, screening algae species with wide temperature adaptation range, fast growth and high astaxanthin content is the key to solving the above problems. In the past 20 years, we have selected more than 20 algae species. During the research, it was found that different algae species have great differences in growth, nutritional requirements and astaxanthin production. Correct and appropriate selection of optimal algae species can significantly increase biomass and astaxanthin yield.
Yunnan Green A has cooperated with the Wuhan Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences since 2006 to collect and isolate 38 Haematococcus species from inland water bodies of China. After single cell cloning, a single algae culture was obtained, and a corresponding algae species bank was established for algae. Species preservation provides algae species resources with independent intellectual property rights for the development of natural astaxanthin for the cultivation of haematococcus. Further research on 4 strains of algae suitable for the natural water quality of Chenghai Lake. Through temperature breeding and breeding, the temperature adaptability and growth of each strain were compared, and the astaxanthin content and yield of each algae strain were used as the evaluation indicators. After several experimental studies, WZ1 and WZ2 strains were finally bred to be suitable for large-scale breeding of Haematococcus sp , The average content of astaxanthin reached 2.23% of the dry weight. It has laid a solid foundation for the application of Haematococcus. ▲
"Scarcity challenges coexist with big market opportunities"
美国北卡罗来纳州立大学教授 Wenqiao Yuan Professor of North Carolina State University
Haematococcus pluvialis is recognized as a dominant organism capable of synthesizing and accumulating natural astaxanthin in large quantities in nature, and there is no report of any toxicity in related literature. Therefore it is regarded as a "concentrate" of natural astaxanthin.
It can be said that the introduction of natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus led to a revolution in the antioxidant market. Some even said that the 21st century will be the century of antioxidants. Haematococcus natural astaxanthin is one of the strong antioxidants found by humans in nature so far, and its antioxidant activity far exceeds the existing antioxidants.
Studies have shown that natural astaxanthin of Haematococcus can easily pass through the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes, effectively prevent retinal oxidation and damage to photoreceptor cells, and protect the central nervous system, especially the brain, thereby helping to treat deficiency Damage to the central nervous system such as blood damage, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Other animal studies have shown that natural astaxanthin has significant effects in raising "good" cholesterol (HDL-C) and reducing "bad" cholesterol (LDL-C) in the body, so it is speculated that natural astaxanthin can reduce apolipoprotein Oxidation can be used to prevent arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and ischemic brain damage. In addition, natural astaxanthin also has health effects such as immune regulation, alleviating exercise fatigue, enhancing body energy metabolism, anti-inflammatory and anti-infection, inhibiting tumors, and inhibiting diabetic nephropathy.
It is based on these well-established experimental data that the health effects have been confirmed, and the global astaxanthin natural astaxanthin market has a bright future. Natural astaxanthin and its extracts have been widely used in developed countries in Europe, America, Japan, and Southeast Asia. Especially in Japan, the "land of longevity", it accounts for about 40% of the global production market share. China accounts for only 30%, Israel accounts for 15%, and the US accounts for 10%. Constrained by core technologies such as production, extraction, and biosynthesis, the natural astaxanthin of Haematococcus sp. Despite its rapid market growth, is facing severe market desaturation. At present, the annual global production capacity is only 800 tons / year, and the price reaches $ 1200 / kg. Haematococcus natural astaxanthin can only be applied in the fields of health products, food and beverages and cosmetics. Various improvements in the survival rate, growth performance, reproductive capacity, stress tolerance, disease resistance and immune-related gene expression of aquatic poultry natural astaxanthin have made the downstream aquatic poultry feed industry huge. Market space. The annual growth rate of 12% is far short of supply. Haematococcus natural astaxanthin market has a bright future, which will present both challenges and opportunities for scientific research units and enterprises. ▲